The statement from the American Chemical Society is below.
At the 2012 Olympic Games, Michael Phelps said he thought urinating in pools was acceptable behaviour. She said this might be because health standards call for hot tub water to be replaced more often than other pool water. Now scientists are tackling a new way to monitor water quality: by measuring how sweet it is. According to a recent study in Environmental Science and Technology Letters, the answer might be in the artificial sweeteners you eat.
However, while urine is sterile, compounds in urine, including urea, ammonia, and creatinine have been found to react with disinfectants to form byproducts known as DBPs that can lead to eye and respiratory irritation.
Jmaiff Blackstock and their research colleagues say that their findings indicated a need for better understanding of pool chemistry among the general public.
And urine for a shock: It's more than anyone wants.
The paper's abstract is below. Nitrogen in pools can be hard to monitor, because it can react with disinfectants to form volatile compounds that can escape into the air where they can no longer be measured in a pool water sample. There's not enough evidence to say whether the nitrosamine levels in pools increase cancer risk, Blatchley says, but one study in Spain did find more bladder cancers in some long-term swimmers. The synthetic sweetener is a ideal marker for the presence of urine, because our body is unable to break down the compound - we excrete 100 percent of the amount we ingest.
It is hard to measure the amount of urine present in swimming pools. First, we developed a new method for achieving high-throughput analysis of ACE without preconcentration or large-volume injection.
The simple analysis Li and her team performed involved taking pool and hot tub samples and passing them through a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer system, one of the most common instruments for determining what chemicals are in a given thing. Concentrations ranged from 30 to 7110 ng/L, up to 570-fold greater than in the input tap water.
About 250 samples were taken from 31 pools around the country and have shown positive signs of urine matter.
They followed that up by monitoring the levels of acesulfame-K in two pools over a three-week timeframe.
The authors of the study hope their work will highlight the "adverse health effects" of urinating in recreational facilities.
The hospital worker did not take kindly to Foster's words and eventually the two were face to face, in a heated exchange. This only compounds the negative buzz on Foster from what interviews he did with teams before his premature departure.
A source close to the case told AFP that Penelope , who shuns the limelight, would also be summoned to be charged. The French presidential hopeful is the former economy minister of current socialist President Francois Hollande .
He came up just short of the green on the par-5 15th, setting up a simple up-and-down for another birdie to seize control. World number three McIlroy, 27, is playing his first tournament after seven weeks out with a rib injury.
Liverpool can not beat the likes of Leicester, Hull or Swansea but they are unbeaten against the other sides now in the top six. Klopp's charges are unbeaten in eight games against other top-six teams this term (W4 D4 L0), keeping three clean sheets.
They registered a half-century stand off 27 deliveries before Morgan was run out at the non-striker's end in the final over. Kieran Powell failed in his comeback game, getting a leading edge to give Liam Plunkett a wicket in his first over.
The movie is already touching $80 million on the U.S. box office and has garnered good reviews from the critics as well. Mangold finally made a superhero film that he could be wholly proud of, and the box office has responded in kind.
At present, it will first launch in the United States , but Google will be angling to get rights to take this worldwide .... Now the new service streams ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, ESPN, regional sports networks and several other cable channels.
According to International Institute of Strategic Studies, the current USA defence budget was set at $598bn (£486.3bn). The country said it was boosting its armed forces to "guard against outside meddling in disputes ".
The Shiv Sena had won 84 seats, BJP 82 seats, Congress 31 seats, Samajwadi Party - 6, AIMIM - 3 seats, ABS - 1, and others - 5. Earlier in the day, Shiv Sena announced its candidates for the post of Mayor and Deputy Mayor.
The recall comes after 51 fires were reported, 30 of which were in the USA , starting last June, according to the recall report . Mercedes began investigating the problem in June 2016 after getting field reports of "thermally damaged" current limiters.
Despite a almost seven-fold increase in revenue, the Los Angeles-based company's net loss widened 38 percent previous year . In 2013, Facebook offered to buy the company from Spiegel and his co-founders for $3billion - an offer they turned down.
Brooklyn cemetery damage not vandalism, police say
The New York Police Department is investigating another incident of vandalism at the Jewish Washington Cemetery in Brooklyn. Bomb threats have been phoned into Jewish community centers, schools and other institutions in recent weeks as well.
Uber Cops to Using 'Greyball' Tool to Avoid Public Scrutiny
When blacklisted officials logged into Uber , they would be shown a fake map populated with cars that didn't actually exist. A statement released by Uber said the program denies rides to "fraudulent users who are violating our terms of service ".
Surprise! Denver Zoo quietly welcomes newborn giraffe
The birth comes at a time when millions have tuned into a New York Zoo's livestream of their pregnant giraffe April's delivery. The father of the baby giraffe is called Oliver but it is not yet known if the baby giraffe will be a boy or a girl.